sexta-feira, 4 de março de 2016

Japanese community is conclusive in favor of Santos Dumont vs Wright brothers, on dispute 'who gave wings to mankind'

Japanese community is conclusive in favor of Santos Dumont vs Wright brothers, on dispute 'who gave wings to mankind'
Last February 11, LIGO experiment has proved that gravitational waves exists and opened a new era of astrophysics, right?

- Wrong, two brothers from Dayton, OH, became the first people to prove the existence of such waves, three years ago.


- But they have witnesses?

- Yes, some people who were near saw it.

Today an affirmation as these would be considered ridiculous, misplaced and with total lack of criteria - an absurd, but it was exactly what happened to Santos-Dumont.

The morning of November 12th 1906 the world was in ecstasy, for the first time the man was able to achieve the maximum dream, flying with a self-powered machine heavier-than-air in the presence of the scientific community, reporters from various countries of the world and many more hundreds of people.

Some days later, American media frivolously discredited him by saying that brothers from Dayton, OH had already flown three years before Mr. Dumont, in the presence of 4 or 5 passers-by.

Santos-Dumont has devoted much of his life to the flight, thoroughly studied the birds and the dynamics of flight, flew in several balloons baskets, airships designed by him in 15 years of research, created 14 previous inventions until he could effectively fly that day.

But for the sake of history, Japanese community is very careful and devoted to judicious affirmations and is from Japan that comes the rescue of truth.

The last edition of AGORA, a magazine for top executives distributed to passengers with a particularly high usage rate from among JAL passengers annually, brings an extensive article that describes the amazing truth about Santos=Dumont’s life, and about the historical distortions that led the Wright Brothers to the improper glory, and thrown Santos-Dumont to oblivion.

But now, things start to change, the article leaves no doubt:

“...What really made Santos-Dumont best known all over the world, was his performances in 1906 in the Bois de Boulogne with a funny powered kite-shaped airplane, named (Bis). He flew 60 meters. (The flight of Santos-Dumont was done in front of thousands of witnesses, including scientists and newspaper reporters, whereas the flight 1903 of Wright brothers was attended by only five common people).
Santos=Dumont Club - history of the the man who gave wings to mankind - Santos=Dumont

Thus, Santos-Dumont becomes adored as the first man to achieve the biggest dream of humanity,

'No, the first fly the skies with a precarious flying machine were the Wright brothers, for that no one would have the good sense to question about'

This hypothetical "historical fact" is what erroneously remains in people's minds of the XXI century around the world. But "good sense" confirms that the first to have won the heavens was the Brazilian citizen living in Paris, Alberto Santos-Dumont.

If 100 years ago, or more, you asked someone anywhere in the world, even in crowded streets of Ginza, "Do you know who Santos-Dumont is?", People probably would say yes. Today perhaps some people might remember him, just because the famous series 'Cartier Santos watches' (in fact, the watch was originally conceived to allow Santos-Dumont to monitor time while maneuvering his dirigible, it was presented by his dear friend, Louis Cartier).

What remains is that bad feeling that Santos-Dumont is another orphan child left in the immense darkness of history.”
Some other Japanese Magazines about Santos=Dumont

Original article, written in Japanese

彼の名をさらに世界に知ら しめたのは〇六年一〇月二二日、 ブーローニュの森で箱型凧のよう な奇妙な形の動力付飛行機『 bis』でやってのけた約六〇メ ートルの飛行だった。

この時、世界はまだライト兄弟のライト・フライヤー号による〇三年の飛行成 功を知らない(サントス デュモ ンの飛行が科学者や新聞記者を含 む何千人という証人の前で成され た一方、ライト兄弟のそれを見た のはわずか五人の一般人だった)。

 為に、サントス デュモンは人類 の夢を叶えた男として大いにもて はやされ、時代の寵児となる。

行機で空を飛んだのはア メリカのライト兄弟である──こ れは誰も異論を差し挟むことのな い常識だろう。けれども、二〇世 紀初頭のある時期、世界の大方の 人々が信じていたのは別の「歴史 的事実」だった。当時の「常識」に よれば、最初に空を制したのはパ リに住むブラジル人、アルベルト・ サントス デュモンである。

  その頃から一〇〇余年を経た今 日、例えば東京・銀座の街角で一 〇〇〇人に「サントス デュモン を知っていますか?」と訊いて、 いったい何人がイエスと答えるだ ろう? もしかしたら、数人の時 計好きがカルティエのサントス・ ウォッチのことを思い出すかもし れない(その腕時計は、元々ルイ・ カルティエが畏友サントス デュ モンのために、飛行船操縦の時に 便利なようにと考案したものだっ た)。
こと ほ ど さ よ う に サ ン ト スデュモンの名は歴史の暗がりの 中に置き去りにされてしまった感 がある。

The Japanese have always given due weight to history and the achievements of Santos-Dumont. In 1976 there was a club exclusively dedicated to the aviation pioneer his noble memory.
Santos=Dumont Club - Japan 1976

Led by Master Morita, the club was known for foster interchange of information between the Foundation Santos-Dumont, administrated at that time by deputy president, Fernando E. Lee.

In 2004, while researching the real history of human flight discovery, two magazines published articles about the life of Santos=Dumont, the Seven Seas magazine dedicated to luxury consumers and members of the Seven Seas Club, which features 45 pages with wonderful photos showing places frequented by Santos=Dumont in Brazil and in the world and a special edition of 世界の腕時計. (The World of watches), both deal with how Santos-Dumont, a creative genius, elegant man who makes insightful research comes inventing the heavier-than-air in a thorough inventive process, but falling in the days public oblivion today, then I transcribe the text of The World of watches.

“...At October 22, 1906, a bizarre shaped flight machine, such as a box kite took off in the gardens of the Bois de Boulogne in Paris, and flew 60m.

It was a huge success in Europe's when the first powered flight took place. Designed and maneuvered by Santos-Dumont, the bamboo flying machine had a wingspan of 12m, total length 10m, all covered with Japanese-made silk, the canard style airship called 14-bis (bis means "again”, because it was the 14th attempt to construct a flying machine, completely designed and tested by him).

Three weeks later he flew 100m with the same airship, and was awarded with the Archdeacon prize, to be given for "the one who first fly an aircraft heavier than air, for more than 100m”.

But then, the Wright Brothers arrived announcing that they had already flown, on December 17, 1903 in the United States, a successful flight of 12 seconds in the light ‘Flyer1’, at the presence of observers. And thus, Santos-Dumont lost the honor to be the world's first to fly).
Team of Masako Mori and Professor Ricardo Magalhaes, doing their research at S=D museum in Petrópolis
Santos-Dumont has emigrated to Paris in 1891, he was a stylished dressed, small statured man who divided his time in car races and dinners in first-class restaurants, and he had always shown great interest in flying through the skies. In 1898 he drifted in empty space, with his first, small balloon, designed by him. After this first invention, he has conceived 14 more flying machines, 10 of them were dirigibles, with the dirigible No 6, and he was the first man to maneuver a dirigible, in a pre-determined route around the Eiffel Tower, in limited time and by this, won the Deutsch Prize. After that he has designed 4 more airplanes, until reach the success in flying with his14-Bis. In 1907 he hits his peak with the invention of his last airplane, with a full-length of 8m, the “Demoiselle”, was both elegant and delicate.”
世界 の 腕時計. (World of Watches) on Cartier Santos Watches 

1906 10 月 22 日、 パリ · ブローニュ の 森で箱凧のような 奇怪 な 形の飛行機械が飛び立ち 、 60mを飛行した 。

ヨーロッパ 初の動力飛行の成功だった。 操縦するの は設計者でもあるサ・ントス - デュモン 、 飛行機械は竹と日本製 シルクで作られた 翼幅 12m 、 全長 10 m 、 先尾翼機14- ビス ( ビスとは "再び の 意で, 彼 は テスト機 14号篠を設計 し ていた)。 それから 3 週間後 、 彼 は 同じ機体で100 m を飛行 し 、「初めて重航空機で100m を飛行した者」 に与え られた アルクデアコン賞 を受賞した。 しかし 1903 年12月17日に アメ リカで ライト兄弟が ライトフライヤ 1で12秒の 飛行に成功したことが後 に認められ 、 世界初の栄誉 は 逃してしまう。

1891年、パリに移住したサントス-デュモンは 小粋な身なりをした社交界の新参者であった。 自動車 レースに出たり 、 一流レストランで食事を したりと遊んではいたが 、 彼 のいちばんの興味は空を飛ぶこと。 1898 年には自ら設計した 小型気球 「 ブラジル号 」 でパリの 空を漂った。その後、 14- ビスまでに 10機の飛行船を設計したが 、 なかでも6号機は制限時間内にエッフェル 塔を周回し 、 ドゥーチ 賞を 獲得した 。 14-ビス後、 4機の飛行機を設計した、 いずれも失敗に終わってしまう。 そして 1907年 、最後に設計した全長 8m の華奢で優美な姿の 「 ドゥモアゼル 」 が 飛び上がった。

'Unsolved mysteries' and 'rewriting the history of aviation'

Japanese community has always had great expressiveness in the Brazilian Aviation, Brazil has the largest Japanese community outside Japan - Ricardo Magalhaes - vice president of the Institute A. Santos Dumont, Luiz Pagano - blogger of Santos-Dumont and the first Japanese descent who reached the highest rank of the institution, Lieutenant-Brigadier of the Air Masao Kawanami - at back, Japanese garden and plaque honoring Japanese-Brazilian community at Medical Center/Hospital Sao Paulo Air Force Base
Why public opinion worldwide has decided to adopt the brothers’ and to abandon Santos-Dumont?

To answer this question, I invite the reader to make a more thorough investigation. Nonetheless, I venture to say that the beginning of the century was a time of great discoveries, the supremacy of the countries was evaluated by the way they presented their inventions in world fairs. The United States of America were the inventors of marketing and have always dominated the state propaganda - Why then a man belonging to an unexpressive country, of a newly liberated colony of Portugal, would be entitled to primacy of the flight?

Publications mentioned in this article

Agora Magazine – february 27th, 2016 (March issue/16)
Publishing House - JAPAN AIRLINES CO. LTD
40-8637 Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo Higashi 2-4-11
Report 堀 雅子 (Masako Hori)
Jornalist Yasuyuki Ukieta, 
Photographer Taisuke Yoshida

日本 サントス · ドゥモン クラブ -1976
Santos=Dumont Club Japan
Directed by Master Morita, in Japan 
Technical partner in Brazil Fernando E. Lee - VP in exercise of the Santos=Dumont Foundation

Magazine 世界の腕時計 (The World of Watches) – august 20th 2004 
# 70
Editorial & Corporate Headquarter 3-39-2 Nakano, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164-8551 Japan 
Publisher: KESAHARO IMAI
Editor in Chief TOMOKO KAYAMA

Seven Seas Magazine (セブン シーズ) – July 7th,  2004 
# 191
International Luxury Media and Club Seven Seas
Publisher: International Luxury Media
Copyright(c) 2002-2016 Fujisan Magazine Service Co., Ltd. 



segunda-feira, 3 de novembro de 2014

Speculations on the mechanics of airships of Santos=Dumont - Propeller Shaft and Rudder

In this photo we see the stern of No. 6
The researchers of Santos = Dumont knows well the episode of Bénerville (http://santosdumontlife.blogspot.com.br/2011/06/santosdumont-erases-part-of-his-history.html) in which Santos=Dumont set fire in all his projects, leaving us only with our assumptions, some texts and photos to fathom the workings of his inventions.

leia este artigo em Português

The only way to reconstruct his mechanics are doing a composition of texts written by him, with a deep analysis of old photos and then to extrapolate the remainder from pure logic.

One of the adaptations that raises more questions is how the bottom part of the helm of dirigibles No. 6 and No. 9, appear to be connected directly to the propeller shaft. We see old photos and we get scared when realizing that the rudder cables seem to come straight from the spinning axis of the helices, which, of course would be impossible.
 
Here the stern has its parts was transferred to a software, so that we can study each function separately.
Once you have eliminated the impossible, like the character of Arthur Conan Doyle, Sherlock Holmes does, we set out to the unlikely however plausible alternatives. In the case of Santos=Dumont, the word 'unlikely' should be replaced to 'elegant solutions'.

That said, we reached the conclusion that the only way for the rudder cables not curl all around the propeller shaft would be that the dirigibles mentioned, would use something equivalent to a "tube-in-tube 'system. A tubular external shaft that supports the helix, would rotate freely around a internal and thin shaft, firmly connected to the nacelle.
 
In this photo we isolated even more the important parts, in order to know how the inner shaft, fixed to the nacelle, holds the rudder cables.

Once formulated this theory, I pick up a photo of the back of a dirigible, I designed structures over the photo and extrapolated the 'tube-in-tube' system. The result was astonishing.

In this diagram, we understand even better how the 'tube-in-tube' system works, the outer shaft has at its tip a large cogwheel that spins around the inner shaft, fixed to the nacelle, triggered by the small cogwheel, whose axis comes directly from the engine.

sexta-feira, 25 de julho de 2014

Luiz Pagano receives the medal 'Merit of Cabangu'

Luiz Pagano receives the medal 'Mérito de Cabangú (Merit of Cabangu) from the hands of Mr. Tomás Castelo Branco
This Friday I had the great honor to receive the medal "Merit of Cabangu" for my work to preserve, disseminate and improve the memory Santos=Dumont (my work could be seen on this blog).

leia este artigo em Português

The ceremony took place on July 18, 2014, at the Farm Cabangu in a city called Santos Dumont, in the estate of Minas Gerais, Brazil. It was the event tha would celebrate the 141st anniversary of Santos=Dumont birth by Cabangu House Foundation, by the patron Jorge Henrique Dumont Dodsworth, the Preparatory School of the Air Cadets and the Municipality of Santos Dumont - MG. At the ceremony it were handed medals "Merit of Cabangu" and "Merit Santos=Durnont".

Luiz Pagano and Jane Bieringuer in Cabangu – MG
The Medal "Merit of Cabangu" was established on April 2, 2005, for the commemoration on birth of Alberto Santos Dumont, on July 20th, 1873 in Cabangu Farm. Was created to distinguish people who have contributed to the preservation, promotion and enhancement of the "Museu Casa Natal de Santos=Dumont" (The Homeland museum of Santos=Dumont). The Medal "Santos Dumont Merit" was established by the Air Ministry Decree No. 39,905 of September 5, 1956 in honor of Alberto Santos=Dumont, in celebration of the 1st flight of the 14 Bis. Brazilian Air Force awards the distinction to citizens who have become entitled to receive the honors.

On the moment of my arrival I was kindly received by Mrs. Monica and Mr. Tomás Castelo Branco, coordinators of Cabangu House Foundation, and trustees of the namesake museum, amidst a band and military buglers, I was invited to take my place in grandstand.

The ceremony began exactly 10 o'clock in the morning with military honors and homage to the Patron of the Air Force, The Air Marshal Alberto Santos=Dumont, then they entered into a military formation, in order to begin the reading of the official agenda by the Commander of the Air Force, we sang the Aviators Anthem, and finally the ceremony of delivering of medals, made by Mr. Tomas Castelo Branco

Among medal recipients of this year, was the astronomer of the Astronomical Observatory of the city of Piracicaba (state of São Paulo), Travnik Nelson, author of the first photograph of the crater on the Moon named after Brazilian Santos=Dumont, taken in 2006, the year of celebrations of the 100th anniversary of the flight of the 14-Bis.

Other recipients of the medal in previous years were Dr. Henrique Lins de Barros, researcher and biographer of Santos=Dumont with several published works, João Luís Musa photographer who restored and published awesome new photos Aviator and also great biographer Mrs Laurete Godoy , author of seven books on aviation and on Greek mythology.

Luiz Pagano receives the medal 'Merit of Cabangu' - With high collar, Cartier Santos and hat S=D style
At the end of the medal delivering ceremony, I along with the other holders of medals, which had gone out of military formation to stand at the right side of Brazilian Flag, returned to our seats in the grandstand for the hearing, in my opinion, one of the most exciting moment of the day, when Tomás told us the story of Cabangu Museum.

Very few people knows that the idea of building the museum, as well as the decision to change the name of the city came on the very same day of the death of aviator (July 23rd, 2932). The name changed in a quickly decision, on July 31, 1932, by the state decree n ° 10.447, the city was no longer called Palmyra in order to become Santos Dumont, but, in other hand, the creation of the museum still follows a much more difficult path.

A few days after the death of aviator in 1932, some citizens of Palmyra decided to go check on his home and became very sad to see the dilapidated state of the house, inhabited by squatters, with belongings and documents scattered all over the place. They immediately expelled the invaders and proceeded to the guardianship of existing goods in house of Cabangu.

The statute of the museum was not written until February 9, 1949, but the harsh struggles to protect the house and farm of Santos=Dumont seemed to be an ungrateful task. Without any help from any government agency, the foundation has only had her first visit of the Air Ministry on 23 October 1952, which started to pay attention to the historical legacy.

In order to celebrate the centenary of the birth of the aviator, in 1973, it was created the National Commission for the Commemoration of the Air Force, then graduated from the House Museum of Santos=Dumont and even a road was built to connect the museum to the road BR 499.

Finally in 2006 the museum received the first help from Federal Government and a headquarters was built. The dream of Alberto Santos=Dumont, who made clear the intention to transform the farmhouse into a museum, began to take its first steps.

According to Mr. Tomás, there is still much to be done, and he (like me) hopes one day to see our country giving the due weight to our historical legacy of Santos=Dumont, and other important figures of our history.

Officials entered into military formation, in order to begin the reading of the official agenda by the Commander of the Air Force, we sang the Aviators Anthem and the event ended with the ceremony of delivering the medals, made by Mr. Tomas Castelo Branco
Below,  the Aviators Anthem Lyrics in Portuguese

Vamos filhos altivos dos ares
Nosso vôo ousado alçar
Sobre campos, cidades e mares
Vamos nuvens e céus enfrentar

D´astro rei desafiamos os cimos
Bandeirantes audazes do azul
Às estrelas de noite subimos
Para orar ao Cruzeiro do Sul

Contato, companheiros !
Ao vento sobranceiros
Lancemos o roncar
Da hélice a girar

Mas se explode o corisco no espaço
Ou a metralha na guerra rugir
Cavaleiros do século do aço
Não nos faz o perigo fugir

Não importa a tocaia da morte
Pois que a pátria dos céus o altar
Sempre erguemos de ânimo forte
O holocausto da vida a voar

Contato, companheiros !
Ao vento sobranceiros
Lancemos o roncar

Da hélice a girar

terça-feira, 27 de maio de 2014

Santos=Dumont - Father of 'Post-scarcity Philosophy'

The idea of ​​Santos=Dumont to share knowledge, without any compromise with patent laws, focusing only the sole purpose of conquering the flight, certainly caused the anticipation of discovering of the aircraft to the beginning of the 20th century. But was also the great cause of the misinterpretation of Americans conferring to the Wright brothers' the status of inventors of the airplane.


Santos=Dumont anticipated the 'wiki' philosophy for over 100 years, in which all the information about an invention, in a specific development process, are placed at the disposal of everybody, in order to multiply the chances of advancement - opening opportunities to a greater number of people involved in the issue, aiming the final creation of such invention (the term 'wiki' to designate this phenomenon appears today in the Wikipedia site and also in the book "Wikinomics" by Anthony D. Williams and Don Tapscott ) - know more about Santos=Dumont father of wiki philosophy

What is known today as "philosophy of post-scarcity" was also created by Santos=Dumont - but today the term 'post-scarcity' is still taken more like science fiction, than a science.

The process of invention/creation through the method of 'post-scarcity' implies in using full mental devotion, seeking to resolve the issues, concerning the stages of creation, taking into consideration that "we can find in nature any and all recourse in order to resolve any and all issue".

The 'post-scarcity' is the method in which the profound observation of nature, combined with the most perfect use of the creative mind, allows to test all possibilities to the exhaustion, in order to obtain the invention of something in its best form.

- scarcity ends at the time when realize the unlimited nature of resources that we consider, in ignorance, as scarce. -

As the name says, the method of 'post-scarcity' also implies in measuring well the use these resources to avoid waste and misuse.


See the following article in which Santos=Dumont presents the use of "aeroplanes " as part of the solution for the development of a dirigible designed to carry passengers, such as an air bus, and draw your own conclusions.

Dirigible Santos=Dumont n.10 - "The Bus" with its "aeroplanes"
Evening Journal Artist, Coffin, Interviews Inventor and Explains His Ideas - July 30, 1902

By G. A Coffin.

Nerve, intellectual and physical.
That is the impression you receive in talking with Santos-Dumont, the Brazilian aeronaut. He is a fatalist. Generally speaking, navigators of the air will avail themselves of every safeguard in their dangerous undertakings, but M. Santos trusts entirely to his airship, discarding the parachute and merely says, with expensive shrug, when the possibility of an accident during his flight is broached:
“Well then, it is all over.”

In discussing aerial navigation, M. Santos is rather cuscreative, He admits that the only way to carry passengers is an airship is by enormously increasing the size of the balloon and that of course makes it more unwieldy in unfavorable weather.

The limit of buoyancy or lifting power has been practically reached by using hydrogen gas for inflations.

Theoretically it might be possible to obtain a gas that would give an increased lifting power. The increased power would be small and the cost large. But the saving would be so doubtful and the results so small that it is useless to figure on it.

So like everyone else who has studied the subject. M. Santos will find that he must delve in other direction seeking assistance from some other source.
 
His Latest Experiment

He informed me that his balloon “dips” during flights. It rocks as though it were riding a swell of the ocean. In order to partially rectify this tendency the young aeronaut has planed two partitions in his balloon, which divide the gasbag into three compartments. The surfaces of the partitions are not varnished, are holed and porous, permitting the gas to percolate or pass slowly through, thus avoiding the evils of gas displacement.

To make his airship absolutely steady M. Santos is about to add a number of aeroplanes to the framework. They are simple frames of some light but strong material. Bamboo or aluminum, on which, light silk is stretched. The adjustment of these at the will of the operator will prove efficacious in giving greater control of the airship.

This departure by Santos-Dumont would seem to indicate no very radical change in construction but in reality it is a noteworthy alteration of his design.

The young Brazilian, to some, may seem a very narrow man, but to me his ability to see things one side only appears as the result of that supreme quality which every successful man possesses, namely, concentration.

Takes One Thing at a Time.

He looks at things from one point of view merely as a microscope searches for one small part of an object. He has devoted himself to the balloon part of his airship and has exhausted the subject and so turns to some other phase in the construction of vehicles of aerial navigation. He finds his attention centered in aeroplanes and for a time he will see nothing but these planes. He will learn all there is to be learned and put the practical use his knowledge and then divert it to some other phase and slowly but surely will arrive at practical results that the whole world will appreciate.

I think that when he fully realizes the lifting power of aeroplanes he will add great many of them to his future airship, and discovering that they undoubtedly add greatly to the lifting power he will eventually be able to construct a ship to carry a number of passengers without increasing the size o the present balloon.


Another thing that would greatly assist in his work of navigating the air is the possibility of liquefying hydrogen. If this can be done on a commercial basis, M. Santos will merely have to carry a few small receptacles containing liquid hydrogen, and be releasing a small quantity at a time can keep the balloon filled. There are, of course, difficulties in the way of even this, but they doubtless will be overcome, as have others before them.

-----------

The 'family' inventions of Santos = Dumont - his own drawing, January 8, 1929

Logic of the inventive process of Santos=Dumont

  "The man is unable to fly" - that line that was constantly heard by Santos=Dumont, but it did not discourage him. He knew that the flight was plausible, all he had to do was to abstract the concept of impossibility. In his mind there was no shortage of resources, quite the contrary, S=D tested a huge range of real possibilities of flight.

These were the steps taken by Santos=Dumont for his inventions, note that as nature does, he did not jump from one invention to another. Every discovery was the result of a process of reasoning (by a privileged mind) applied to practical situations in a sequence of impeccable logic.


1 - He determined that the invention of the airplane, the flight of heavier than air, was possible, since the birds, insects and other animals’ flies;
2 - He began his inventive process from technology in hand, undirigible balloons and steam engines;
3 - He questioned the use of oil engine and step-by-step invented the dirigibility of balloons;
4 - His invention evolved following a logical order of inventions to improve his airship to the state of the art;
5 - He started experimenting with heavier than air, studied the fluctuation of heavier than air with the help of displacement and handling (n.11 and n.14), and in tests in the water (n. 18 );
6 - Created the flight of heavier than air (n. 14 Bis);
7 - Improved the flight of heavier than air aircraft in several other airships (no. 15 and n.20);

terça-feira, 23 de outubro de 2012

Santos Dumont and the Celebrations for the First Flight of an airplane Heavier than Air


Santos=Dumont arrives with his 14-Bis dismantled


At exactly 106 years ago Santos=Dumont lived the happiest day of his life; he had made the first flight with an airplane heavier than air.
Contrary to many beliefs Santos=Dumont perform the first flight, differently from the Wright brothers, Santos=Dumont flew in front of a technical committee, with the presence of several witnesses and therefore, was homologated as the first flight of history.

In his book Dans l'air Santos Dumont reports:

"Shortly thereafter, on October 23, before the Scientific Committee of the Aero Club and the large crowd, I've made ​​the famous flight of 250 meters, which fully confirmed the possibility of a man fly.
This last experience and the one of July 12, 1901, gave me the two of the happiest moments of my life".


A fan is photographed next to his idol Santos = Dumont shortly after being the first man to fly an aircraft heavier than air -  Bagatelle, Paris on October 23, 1906. On that date, Santos=Dumont took off with
his 14-Bis and flew 60 meters in 7 seconds, at a height of 2 meters above the ground, in front of more than a thousand spectators and the Official Committee of the Aero Club of France.
(i.e. mounting illustrative)


Article published in the Brazilian magazine “O Cruzeiro" recounting the picturesque case in which a donkey called Kuignot help Santos=Dumont in his experiments.

14-bis being transported amid the crowd

The fact was reminded on several different dates, the first Brazilian astronaut, Marcos Pontes in his mission to space, did the most significant homage.

At 23h30 min of March 29, 2006, Brazilian astronaut, Lieutenant Colonel Marcos Cesar Pontes, leaving the Baikonur Base, in Kazakistan, aboard the Russian spacecraft Soyuz TMA-7, went to the International Space Station, in company of North American Astronaut William McArthur and Russian Valery
Tokariov. It was called “Centennial Mission” in honor of the first flight of Santos=Dumont.
Marcos Pontes and his homage to Santos=Dumont (with a Panama Hat and a handkerchief that belonged to the aviator)
On April 3, 2006 was sent a interview with a tribute to Santos Dumont, in which Marcos Pontes used aboard the International Space Station a Panama hat equal to the inventor and a handkerchief that belonged to Santos=Dumont.
Handkerchief that belonged to Santos=Dumont with the stamps of the International Space Station and the dated stamp (April 8, 2006) from the Russian segment of the ISS (Российский сегмент Международной космической станции)

Marcos returned to Earth on the night of April 8, at 20h56 Brasilia time, April 9th ​ Kazakhstan time.

configuration of the 14-Bis on its first flight.


with this model S=D won the cup Archdeacon - flew on October 23 1906 60m at 3m high


With this model S=D has addapted his latest invention, the Aileron - On November 12 1906, flew 220m  at 60 m high


S=D also invented the engine starter device for 14-Bis



sexta-feira, 20 de julho de 2012

Santos Dumont Doodle


I really enjoyed the homage paid by Google today for the birthday of Alberto Santos-Dumont. This is perhaps Brazil's most relevant personality, which stand to be the rightful inventor of autonomous aircraft heavier than air.

Leaving that polemic aside, I would like to salute Google initiative.


Cheers!

sexta-feira, 15 de junho de 2012

The science behind involucres and valves of Santos=Dumont Dirigibles



Santos=Dumont used the ascensional force of hydrogen in almost all of his dirigibles. Unlike modern balloons that make use of hot air, the hydrogen envelopes were sealed and the internal pressure should be controlled through valves.


The technology of gas balloons is quite old; this Illustration from the late 19th century shows Jacques Charles performing an experience with the first hydrogen gas balloon in August, 27th 1783, at the Champ de Mars, Paris.

The system to obtain hydrogen was invented by French balloonist and manufacturer Gabriel Yon (1835-1894). It consisted of placing a bit of iron filings in dilute sulfuric acid inside two large tanks. Hydrogen bubbles were formed and pumped through tubes inside the water to be cleaned of impurities. Finally it was stored in a steel tank under pressure.

The association hydrogen envelope and petrol explosion engines was very dangerous, dozens of hydrogen dirigibles exploded or burned in the years, the most famous of them was the Hindenburg disaster that took place on May 6, 1937, as the German passenger airship LZ 129 Hindenburg caught fire and was destroyed during its attempt to dock at the Lakehurst Naval Air Station killing 35 people.

This High-speed videography at thousand frames per second makes it possible to observe in detail the sequence of events after the balloon has been lit with a match.
Santos=Dumont made use of the technology available at that time to create dirigibles very safe with regard to anti-flammability and the most perfect envelope was used in his Dirigible Number 6.

As observed in several accidents that happened before the conquest of the Deutsch prize, Dumont knew that the envelope could not be too long because it ran the risk of bending the middle, as happened with his Dirigible Number 1 and 2. He also knew that he should take a very special care with expansion and contraction of hydrogen at different altitudes as happened with Augusto Severo.


Augusto Severo was a Brazilian congressman who devoted his life to dirigibles, he died tragically on May 12, 1902, when he performed maneuvers with his dirigible named Pax in Paris. Fifteen minutes after his takeoff from the Park Vaugirand the rigid envelope broke down due to expansion of hydrogen through the rarefied atmosphere, releasing hydrogen directly over the internal combustion engine and caused a huge explosion, flame debris fell on the Avenue du Maine, causing uproar in the city.

In the chart above shown in Figure 1 a sudden escape of hydrogen and in figure 2 the fan is used to inflate the cuff to prevent the internal envelope fold in half.
In the chart above we see in Figure 1 the Dirigible Santos=Dumont Number 6 ascended up far, the atmosphere was thin and the pressure inside the envelope went high. In figure 2 the safety valve automatically opens to prevent collapse of the envelope.
In the chart above we see in Figure 1 Santos Dumont voluntarily decides to empty the envelope. In figure 2 he turns the fan on to inflate the cuff preventing the envelope fold in half.
Santos=Dumont knew how to compensate for variations in pressure by safety valves that worked automatically, letting out the gas when the pressure increased significantly and closed automatically when the pressure returned to normal. Manual valves and an inner inflatable cuff was inflated with a fan and emptied directly from his nacelle.

He also took great care with his envelope, demanded that it was always well sewed and varnished to prevent leaks, above we see Santos Dumont at Lachambre & Machuron headquarters overseeing the manufacture of his envelope. He also made sure to keep the balloon far away enough from the engine exhaust pipe, it could burn the delicate envelope made of Japanese silk.